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上海自考00015《英语(二)》短文写作知识点押题资料

2021-05-28 14:17:37   来源:上海自考网    点击:   
   


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  一、基本写作步

  1.审题

  所谓审题,就是审清作文的要求和所给的材料,如图表说明、关键词、段首句、提纲等等。

  审题是写作的第一步,也是文章成功的关键所在之一。在考试之中,由于时间仓促,心情紧张,匆忙审题,造成离题万里的现象屡见不鲜。因此可以说能否审清题意是作文、乃至考试成败的关键。在平时进行写作练习的时候,就要有意识地养成认真审题,仔细研究的良好习惯。

  弄清作文要求之后,就要确定文章的主题思想。主题思想明确、深刻,才能确保文章言之有物,顺理成章。围绕主题去构思、写作文章,才能思路清晰,不致节外生枝离题万里。

  2.提纲

  提纲有利于作者理清思路。尤其在考场上,根据提纲写作,能写出层次分明,逻辑性强,表意清晰的好文章,可避免考试时由于情绪紧张而造成的不应有的失误。

  提纲有多种类型,可详可略,写作时也可根据自己的经验和特点编写适合于自己的提纲。常见的提纲种类有罗列式提纲、主题式提纲、句子式提纲。所谓罗列式提纲,就是根据题目和所给材料,围绕中心思想,罗列一系列相关的词、短语或句子。主题式提纲比较简略,只写出文章的主题思想即可,写作时依据主题思想,围绕重点,进行扩充和展开。句子式提纲比较详细,顾名思义,就是用句子把文章的主要观点写出来。

  3.成文

  文章的组织结构:一定要按所列提纲写。一般分为开头、正文、结尾 3 部分

  (1)开头;如引语法、主题句法、提问法、事例法、描述法等。

  常用句式:

  ①There is an old /popular saying /proverb which says /goes…..

  ②Nowadays more and more people are beginning to be aware of the importance/seriousness of …

  ③There are different opinions among people as to …Some believe … Others, however, disagree with it. They think…

  ④….has been playing an increasingly important role in our day-to-day life. It has brought us a of benefits but has created some serious problems as well.

  ⑤ One of our ancient philosophers said, …..Chinese people have always been holding this idea to be one of their standards of morality.

  (2) 主体: 要注意启承转合,常用句型:

  ① On the contrary, there are some people in favor of ……. They believe…Moreover, they think…..

  ② There are many ways to ….. First, _____. Second _____. Finally, ______.

  ③ Confronted with______, we should take a series of effective measures to _____.

  For one thing, ____. For another, ______. Finally, _______. (也可用于结尾)

  ④ Although the popular belief is a fact, a current study(survey/investigation)

  indicates that...

  (3) 结尾

  总结文章的主要内容,或者提出希望或展望未来,或者对文章提出的观点进行反问,启发读者思考。如:An open China has realized the importance of business. Why should we give up this opportunity and rely on agriculture?

  常用句型:

  ① From what has been discussed /mentioned above, we may conclude that…

  ② Therefore, it is not difficult to draw /come to the conclusion that….

  ③ Only in this way/ in doing so, can sth. be really ….

  ④ Given the reasons /consideration I have just outlined/ discussed/ presented, I strongly recommend that …..

  无论是何种类型,英语(二)作文基本上是三段式作文,根据不同的类型,三段的写法不同。 所用的模式也不同。

  二、各类型作文的写法和常用句型

  (一)图表 / 看图作文

  1. 写作模式:描述图表/图画-分析图表/图画-总结全文(也可以展望未来或发出倡议或表明自己的态度)

  2. 常用句型:

  (1)表示说明的开篇句式:

  As we can see from the chart / graph / table/ picture…

  The chart/graph/ table displays/ illustrates/ describes/ indicates/ points out that …

  It is clear/ apparent from the chart/ table/ graph that…

  The figures/ statistics in the chart reflect/ show/ reveal that …

  The table/chart /graph shows (that) …

  According to the table/chart /graph, …

  As is shown in the table/chart /graph, …

  As can be seen from the table/chart/ graph/picture, …

  It can be seen from the figures/statistics that …

  We can see from the figures/statistics that …

  As we can see in this picture, …

  This picture shows that …

  (2)描述图表的句式:

  A takes up/ occupies/ accounts for 20% of the total population/ output/ income/ expenditure/ consumption.

  On the top of the list is…, which accounts for 60%.

  On the bottom is …, which takes up 20%.

  Compared with A, B has a higher percentage.

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